Scientists found that blocking CB1 receptors and CB2-receptors in young zebrafish resulted in morphological deficits, reductions in heart rate, and non-inflated swim bladders. These findings indicate that the endocannabinoid system is pivotal to the development of the locomotor system in zebrafish, and that disturbances to the endocannabinoid system in early life may have detrimental effects.
The translation of these effects to humans is obviously not direct, but it is important for science to learn about safety and expected effects, to examine how chemistry interacts in petri dishes, how basic organic/animal functions are impacted in a living thing, and when the time is appropriate, to then assess any effects in humans
Title: Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy
Researchers have recently revealed the importance of maintaining a balanced diet, when consuming cannabidiol (CBD). Consuming oral capsules containing CBD may be a more consistent method of consumption than blending CBD into liquids or solid foods, but unfortunately, capsules do not prevent a high degree of potential fluctuation of dosing. The fat content of a meal may vary widely, and so may change the active concentrations of CBD which become active in the bloodstream. In other words, the effects felt by a consumer may be either stronger or weaker, and differ in duration, related to the method of consumption, and the product make-up taken. Patients considering CBD as a therapeutic intervention, who also want a consistency of effect, would be wise to be mindful to maintain a diet with a balanced amount of fat (oils, butter, etc.) when consuming CBD capsules.
This article highlights the variation of effects felt when altering consumption methods. For example, edibles and inhaled cannabinoids of the same dosage have extremely different effects, because of how they are processed in the body processes. When inhaled, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) diffuses across structures in the lungs known as alveoli, and are then transmitted to circulate throughout the bloodstream. Edibles introduce THC into the system by first metabolizing with liver enzymes, resulting in an altered metabolite of THC circulating throughout the body. This subtly-altered metabolite of THC can be more potent than the starting material, although the onset is delayed due to the process of consumption, digestion, and metabolism. All consumers would do well to research their consumption method of choice and proceed carefully when switching between methods.
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Over the years, CBD has shown that it may play a therapeutic role in sleep regulation, adjusting sleep cycles, inducing sedative effects, increasing total sleep time and less frequent awakenings, reducing dream recall, and it has even been shown to REM sleep. Some of these studies have been levied against comparison with placebo medications, and some studies have been done looking very closely at individuals’ physiology as they sleep. Some studies even document a return of sleep disturbances once the CBD is removed from treatment. Doses have been explored ranging from 40, 80, or 160 mg per day, up to 600mg. CBD has been tried both alone and in combination with other cannabinoids.
Here, a study of 26 participants, were tried with CBD once, and then placebo once, after 2 weeks, and they found no significant impact of the CBD on sleep. The authors note that the small window (of personnel studied and of episodes of dosing CBD) is a concerning limitation. Another interpretation of these results is that CBD is not acting as an acute sedative. Its function may be situational (for certain states of mind, CBD may work in a quieting way) or it may be impacting the body at a much more basic level (for example, if it is reducing levels of stress or depression hormones, the effect of improving sleep may have a more gradual impact.
A related point – it is important for us to take note of studies that don’t necessarily have fireworks associated. Not every study will show amazing effects or overwhelming results. This helps us consider what is good or what is missing from the papers we read – and helps create a more realistic research culture. Every study helps teach, even if it’s not showing breathtaking results.