Investigation into the flavonoid derivatives of Atriplex tatarica shows that it provides anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
P. aeruginosa is a bacterium that causes infections most frequently in immunocompromised individuals who have been hospitalized for long periods of time. A biofilm is a protective shield that some types of bacteria create for themselves in attempt to protect against host immune system defenses. An infection that evades an immune system can become quickly dangerous should bacterial or biofilm grow in the lungs, kidney, or urinary tracts. Incorporating the flavonoids found in A. tatarica into medical regimen could provide an option for augmenting current treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections. The growth of biofilms, or collections of microorganisms that can grow on a wide variety of surfaces, makes the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitalized patients with antibiotics markedly more difficult. Certain flavonoids with proven anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm provide an alternative route for helping to manage deadly antibiotic-resistant infections.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Protium spruceanum is associated to immunomodulation and enzymes inhibition
Protium spruceanum, a plant often used in traditional Brazilian medicine, can reduce inflammation. Investigation into the molecular action of the plant shows that treatment using both leaves and branches can result in the inhibition of ROS, NO, NAG, MMP-9, COX-2, and iNOS, all normal mediators of inflammation. Protium spruceanum is one of many plants containing high phenol/flavonoid, terpenoid, and glycoside content that exhibits notable anti-inflammatory properties.
An overview of the synthetic and medicinal perspectives of indenopyrazoles
Indenopyrazoles, molecules crucial to many biological signaling pathways, have been found to bind to cannabinoid receptors and seem to exhibit therapeutic properties in a variety of conditions. A review of studies on the molecule describes previously documented antimycobacterial, antipsychotic, anti-tumor, and anti-microbial properties, among others. The molecule has demonstrated moderate affinity for both cannabinoid-1 and cannabinoid-2 receptors, suggesting possible additional anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenerative capabilities related to the interactions with these receptors. Further research may uncover additional therapeutic applications and shed light on additional benefits of cannabinoid receptors.
Investigation of chemical profile, biological properties of Lotus corniculatus extracts and their apoptotic-autophagic effects on breast cancer cells
A study of Lotus corniculatus demonstrated that extracts of the plant possess antioxidant, DNA protective, wound healing, and anti-cancer properties. L. corniculatus, known colloquially as bird’s foot trefoil, is a plant commonly used during off-season to manage erosion and prepare feed for livestock. The plant has been used for medicinal purposed to treat IBS and insomnia. Researchers prepared extracts of the plant in water, ethyl acetate and methanol to compare differences between the three solvents. Water extracts exhibited the most significant antioxidative and protective DNA properties, while both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts induced death in and prevented the migration and proliferation of breast cancer cells.
Opioid Drug Abuse and Modulation of Immune Function.
A recent review article has pieced together part the mechanism behind the fact that opioids have immune system suppression properties. Morphine, a popular opioid, and one of the main actors in the modern opiate epidemic of dependence and addiction interacts with factors within the immune system that break down the coordination of the two main cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity. A disruption in one of the primary immune defense operators, this action may leave users susceptible to a multitude of illnesses. This review highlights the importance of understanding the mechanism of opioid-related immunosuppression so that physicians can better treat patients and the public is more aware of the risks. Addicts, especially, should be made aware of the risks posed by illicit intravenous drug use.
A recent study has revealed that the co-activation of mu-opioid receptors and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) results in the attenuation of the response seen when each receptor type is activated on its own. The decreased response of the two receptor types during co-activation has been implicated in negatively modulating neuritogenesis (the process of generating new brain nerve cells). Neuritogenesis is important for the cells’ ability to receive and project signals leading the researchers to call for more research in order to elucidate the effect this may have on addiction.
The fact that there is co-interaction between opioid receptors and cannabinoid receptors is also interesting to inform the discussion of the place that cannabinoid actors may have in supporting the healing of those who are dependent or addicted to opiate medications.
Oncologists Should Recommend Cannabis-Based Medicine for Palliative Care
Earlier this June a review was published that encourages oncologists to recommend cannabis products to their patients as a safe and effective method of palliative care. The opinion piece highlights how cannabis is a useful treatment for a variety of illnesses (nausea, vomiting, sleep, mood, anxiety), and encourages practitioners to prescribe cannabis for their patients so that they can appreciate the safety and effectiveness of the product.
Dr. Caplan and the #MDTake:
As Dr Abrams makes abundantly and eloquently clear, the reasons for oncologists to RETURN to recommending cannabis (as clinicians were accustomed to doing in generations past) are many. Weighing the safety profile of cannabinoid medicines and the long list of potential benefits for those battling cancers, against temporary adverse side effects (some of which, like appetite stimulation and sedation, can also be advantages for oncology patients), it is almost unethical for modern clinicians to NOT recommend that patients consider cannabis supplementation. The historical sociopolitical war on drugs was never founded in scientific rationale, nor supported by rigorous inquiry that has borne out half a million scientific reviews on the topic. It is high time that physicians return to a practice style that prioritizes patient well-being first, and emphasizes self-education about areas of medicine about which the providers may be less informed.
A Common Succulent Provides Wound Healing Benefits
A recent study has found that Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae), a common succulent, has wound healing properties. During testing, it was demonstrated that an extract of the succulent, known to be rich in flavonoids, enhanced cellular proliferation and migration, proving its therapeutic benefit. The authors have suggested that a topical treatment made from the extract would be an efficient delivery method.
Snacking Causes Long Term Attention of HPA Axis Stress Responses and Enhancement of Brain FosB/delta FosB Expression in Rats
Researchers have found that snacking or consuming palatable foods reduces the amount of perceived stress that an individual experiences. Although this is well-known to most people intuitively, and common knowledge in anecdote, the physiological explanation for this finding has not been thoroughly investigated. In this review, it is clear that food interacts with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and stress response, including markers of neuronal plasticity. The area that regulates stress and reward are both attenuated by palatable food, such as a sucrose drink. The dampening effect of the sucrose on the HPA axis and neuronal plasticity markers continued to be seen weeks after cessation of the sucrose, suggesting that snacking can have longterm effects on stress and the reward pathway.
This has interesting implications for a medication like cannabis, which includes elements that can either stimulate or reduce appetite. If consumers of cannabis are also snacking while they consume, this may cloud an accurate understanding of the stress-relieving aspects of cannabis
A recent study has found that “Men who had ever smoked marijuana had higher sperm concentration and count and lower serum FSH concentra- tions than men who had never smoked marijuana; no differences were observed between current and past marijuana smokers.” Cannabinoid receptors are found in several components of the male sexual reproductive system, including the testes, vas deferens, and human sperm cells, and the activation of the receptors seems to be dose-dependent (greater action follows greater dosages.) Participants who had consumed lower doses had higher sperm count and concentration but participants who had consumed high doses had lower sperm count and concentration. Further research is needed to confirm causation.
There is a body of research supported by the National Institute for Drug Abuse, in humans and animal models, that has shown that so-called “abusive exposure” to marijuana smoking may adversely impact spermatogenesis. Data is less clear for moderate consumption levels and multiple studies have found higher serum testosterone concentrations among marijuana consumers.
Some important notes in the article:
The results may not be generalizable to all men. They used self-report as a tool of assessing cannabis exposure, which comes with fair reason to question the precision of the data collected. They also note that “these findings are not consistent with a deleterious effect of marijuana on testicular function. Whether these findings are reflective of the previously described role of the endocannabinoid system in spermatogenesis or a spurious association requires confirmation in further studies.”