Anxiety

A Call for More Research: Adolescent Cannabis Use and Mental Health Risks

Title: Adolescent Cannabis Use and Risk of Mental Health Problems – The Need for Newer Data

Here, an article presenting a case, justifying the need for new research to determine how cannabis use in adolescents may affect their risk for mental health. Few recent studies have come out discussing mental health and adolescent use. This is problematic because, over the years, cannabis products have been curated to be significantly more potent than in the past. Considering how vulnerable the brain is, during adolescence, because it is still developing, longitudinal studies need to be conducted to fully elucidate the effects of cannabis on development. 


This review highlights how poorly adolescents consuming cannabis seem to be at titrating their dose, or correctly self-regulating consumption of cannabis. There is an overall need for greater education before cannabis is acquired, from a dispensary or otherwise. For adults and teens seeking to self-regulate their use of cannabis, irrespective of the consumption method, it is difficult to succeed, considering the gross lack of knowledge and sophistication around the dosage. The wide variability in choice and make-up of cannabis products, added to the complexity associated with how each patient may process the myriad of cannabinoids within the products consumed leads to a complexity of confounding variables, and here, a call for more studies to be conducted on more than just adolescents. 

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2XGXNLC      inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:

Benjamin Caplan, MDA Call for More Research: Adolescent Cannabis Use and Mental Health Risks
read more

In Vivo Availability of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Levels in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis

A 2019 study found that patients with early-stage psychotic disorders had lower levels of CB1-R (Cannabinoid Receptor – 1) compared to healthy individuals. These findings suggest that targeting CB1R with cannabis-based products could potentially treat psychotic disorders. Interestingly, reductions in CB1R levels were associated with greater symptom severity and poorer cognitive functioning but only in male patients. More research is needed into the intersections of gender and psychotic disorders.

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2XEkpfV      inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:

Benjamin Caplan, MDIn Vivo Availability of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Levels in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis
read more

Supplementing Antipsychotics with CBD Enhances Psychotic Symptom Treatment

Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

Most schizophrenia medications function by blocking the action of the dopamine D2 receptor and effectively treat positive psychotic symptoms, such as delusions or hallucinations, but fail to treat negative psychotic symptoms, such as lack of motivation or the lack of an ability to feel pleasure. Anecdotal evidence has pointed toward the potential for CBD to attenuate psychotic symptoms in conjunction with normally prescribed antipsychotics; additionally, CBD is not hypothesized to act on the D2 receptor, suggesting that it may afford unique advantages over anti-psychotics.

Researchers interested in further exploring this conducted the first known placebo-controlled CBD trial among schizophrenia patients. Although results did not suggest a potential for CBD to treat negative psychotic symptoms, in conjunction with antipsychotics, the CBD group experienced marked lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms. Both the placebo and CBD groups experienced equal levels of treatment-induced adverse events, suggesting that CBD is well-tolerated.

These results suggest that CBD may be effective in treating not only schizophrenia but also psychotic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease and THC-induced psychosis.

Additional Point: CBD has shown to act in a neuroprotective manner and reduce the psychoactive effects of THC, making it a viable option for patients who have experienced negative side effects with THC.

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2WztI04     inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:

Benjamin Caplan, MDSupplementing Antipsychotics with CBD Enhances Psychotic Symptom Treatment
read more

Video: Cannabinoids, Internal States, and Anxiety

A new literature review summarizing the recent findings relating to cannabis and anxiety.

Researchers conclude that CBD and low-dose THC can cause relaxation and decrease anxiety and self-spun thoughts. Some studies show that high-dose THC can cause psychotic symptoms; however, studies also show that CBD can protect against those THC-induced symptoms. Therefore, using cannabis extracts with THC and CBD could be a safe way to reduce anxiety. 

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:     http://bit.ly/2JnOpss    inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:

Benjamin Caplan, MDVideo: Cannabinoids, Internal States, and Anxiety
read more

One theory for why cannabis affects people differently

Something still not entirely understood is why cannabis affects people differently. A study looking at THC interactions in the brain show that rewarding and adverse effects are produced by anatomically different areas. Individual experiences likely differ due to genetic variation.

http://bit.ly/2Jnjg8q 

Benjamin Caplan, MDOne theory for why cannabis affects people differently
read more

A Report on the Psychiatric Effects of Cannabis Demonstrates the Progress and the Gaps in Cannabis Knowledge

Psychiatric effects of cannabis 

A report published by the British Journal of Psychiatry in 2001 demonstrates the progress the medical community has made but also what gaps still need to be filled in when utilizing cannabis. This report found that excess consumption of cannabis leads to feelings of panic and anxiety and that 15% of those willing to respond to a survey experienced acute psychotic symptoms. It was also found that cannabis dependence can occur, as well as withdrawal, which can last for close to a week.  This article was a review that synthesized relevant studies but also claimed that the casual conclusions of these papers were difficult to find or replicate. 

This paper is interesting given its age considering it put out what was current data but then ended by stating the casual conclusions of each paper may not stand. 18 years later, some of the data has stood, and some have not. Users can gain a tolerance to cannabis but many are looking to mitigate it. The author uses the word dependence when discussing cannabis which is a word that holds weight and is up for debate. Intoxicating cannabinoids, like THC, affect the reward center, but non-altering cannabinoids, such as CBD, tend to work more noticeably outside of the brain, although all have mixed effects in both regions. Cannabinoids are not all the same, apply quite differently to various ailments, and have divergent effects. Blanketing an entire crop with a misinformed warning label seems irresponsible and unduly harsh. Users or those looking into cannabis-based medicine are encouraged to do their research. 

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2XrRPmT      inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:

Benjamin Caplan, MDA Report on the Psychiatric Effects of Cannabis Demonstrates the Progress and the Gaps in Cannabis Knowledge
read more

Benin Republic Hemp Improves Male Fertility

Cannabinoid-deficient Benin republic hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) improves semen parameters by reducing prolactin and enhancing antioxidant status

Cannabis sativa, specifically Nigerian hemp, has been found to have adverse effects on male fertility. It’s use has been linked to a decrease in semen parameters, germ cell proliferation, and reproductive organ weight. It can induce hyperprolactinemia, a condition causing infertility in 11% of men with low sperm count.

Data from the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency in Nigeria has suggested users preferentially obtaining hemp from the Benin Republic. In a recent study investigating the composition of Benin republic hemp, a lack of THC and lower levels of cannabinol were observed. Additionally, an ethanol extract of Benin republic hemp increased sperm count, morphology, and viability.   

Additional Point: Certain phytocannabinoids found in cannabis have demonstrated a detrimental effect on male fertility. However, analysis of hemp from the Benin republic shows a low to no levels of these toxic cannabinoids and evidence points to this particular hemp enhancing male fertility.

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2Yzc26y     inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:


Benjamin Caplan, MDBenin Republic Hemp Improves Male Fertility
read more

Stress Increases the Probability of Drug Abuse

The Effects of Trait Emotional Intelligence on Adolescent Substance Use- Findings From a Hungarian Representative Survey

A recent study has revealed that teenagers who have a difficult time managing stress and appear to lack empathy were more likely to abuse tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis.

The studies initial goal was to determine if emotional intelligence could predict future drug abuse, but found that those with more empathy and interpersonal competencies were less likely to engage in substance abuse. This study provides data that may help to develop targeted drug prevention programs in order to lessen adolescent drug abuse or the development of any future substance abuse disorders. 

Highlighted in this study was the possible inaccuracy of the conclusions as the results may have been skewed by teenagers merely providing what they thought was a socially acceptable answer. Despite the fact that the majority of states have legalized the use of medical marijuana a stigma against cannabis use remains.

Stigma has and continues to stand in the way of medical research. If the consumption of cannabis were less frowned upon then perhaps more observational studies, studies that relied on self-reporting use, or even appropriate medical treatment, would be improved. The more information that can be gathered, the more accurate the research that can be conducted. In order to fully understand all the benefits and limitations of cannabinoids, although this also applies to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the uninformed stigma must also be eroded.

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2YB4dgE      inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:


Benjamin Caplan, MDStress Increases the Probability of Drug Abuse
read more

The Relationship between Cannabis and Schizophrenia

Cannabis and Psychosis: Are We any Closer to Understanding the Relationship?

Despite the constant technological gains in medicine, there is still insufficient information and knowledge about who is at risk of developing cannabis psychosis prior to an individual’s exposure to cannabis. Controlled research is limited due to the legal status of cannabis but the growing number of states legalizing medicinal and recreational use of cannabis will likely provide a naturalistic experiment that will produce a prevention strategy for the condition. Current schizophrenia research is limited to western male populations and an overemphasis on the biological model; future research should extend to a more diverse population and sociocultural factors that may lead to schizophrenia.

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2FcDVJR      inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:


Benjamin Caplan, MDThe Relationship between Cannabis and Schizophrenia
read more

Video: Cannabinoid Intervention for PTSD: Where to Next?

The endocannabinoid system has long been recognized as a promising target for PTSD treatment.

Here, a 2018 literature review summarizes the risks and benefits of cannabis as a treatment option. Watch our video adaptation, and review the source literature, below:


View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2XgnrXn     inside the CED Foundation Archive

To explore related information, click the keywords below:

Benjamin Caplan, MDVideo: Cannabinoid Intervention for PTSD: Where to Next?
read more