Cannabis Dependence

Standardized Registries may Improve Our Knowledge about Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Title: Cyclic vomiting syndrome- Pathophysiology, comorbidities, and future research directions

A recent article has called for the establishment of a multicenter registry in order to learn more about cyclic vomiting syndrome and related disorders. Creating such a registry would provide a database of patients for clinical trial recruitment, research on patient outcomes across different treatment methods, the underlying mechanism for the disorder, and the ability to identify potential biomarkers for the disorder. The registry would expand our understanding of the disorder, on all fronts, and hopefully, reveal the most effective treatment method. 


Could such a registry be created while still safeguarding patient privacy?


Highlighted in this article is the similarity of cyclic vomiting syndrome and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). CHS is often misdiagnosed or goes undiagnosed for an exorbitant amount of time. By creating this registry for cyclic vomiting syndrome and related disorders, including CHS, the same information about genetics, underlying mechanisms, and effective treatments could also be determined.

Finding a genetic basis for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome would support patients looking into cannabis-based medicine to decide if cannabis would even be an effective treatment, by allowing them to discover possible side effects to which they might be more susceptible.

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This paper is also stored here:     http://bit.ly/2JtDAFm    inside the CED Foundation Archive


See the full available literature on Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome here: http://bit.ly/2XHfdrI


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Benjamin Caplan, MDStandardized Registries may Improve Our Knowledge about Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
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More Research Needed to Determine Impacts of Cannabis Use During Pregnancy

Cannabis Use in Pregnancy

With rates of cannabis use during pregnancy more than doubling between 2002 and 2017, a need for more studies, over longer periods of time, which investigate prenatal cannabis use has emerged. Existing data ranges from reporting an increased risk for preterm birth and low birth weight to cannabis reducing the risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Concerns are historically informed by preliminary alcohol and cocaine studies that falsely suggested no gestational harm, despite the eventual recognition that these substances ultimately carry significant risk. Pregnant women should exercise caution in their cannabis use until more definitive conclusions are found, regarding maternal cannabis use.

The decision of where, if anywhere, cannabis fits in relationship to pregnancy is populated with more questions than answers. There are a handful of good quality, long-term studies, to date, that show a pattern that informs some degree of generalization: by and large, the less frequently consumed, and the later during the pregnancy the consumption, the less potential risk. But, for the sake of any pregnant woman and her baby, this type of decision should always be made in direct consultation with the obstetrician supporting the pregnancy.

Additional Point: A lack of high-quality studies relating to cannabis use and gestational risk has resulted in conflicting evidence surrounding prenatal cannabis use. However, historical context involving prenatal alcohol and cocaine use studies informs the need to exercise caution before definitive conclusions are made

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This paper is also stored here:     http://bit.ly/2FUQXfp    inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDMore Research Needed to Determine Impacts of Cannabis Use During Pregnancy
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Supplementing Antipsychotics with CBD Enhances Psychotic Symptom Treatment

Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

Most schizophrenia medications function by blocking the action of the dopamine D2 receptor and effectively treat positive psychotic symptoms, such as delusions or hallucinations, but fail to treat negative psychotic symptoms, such as lack of motivation or the lack of an ability to feel pleasure. Anecdotal evidence has pointed toward the potential for CBD to attenuate psychotic symptoms in conjunction with normally prescribed antipsychotics; additionally, CBD is not hypothesized to act on the D2 receptor, suggesting that it may afford unique advantages over anti-psychotics.

Researchers interested in further exploring this conducted the first known placebo-controlled CBD trial among schizophrenia patients. Although results did not suggest a potential for CBD to treat negative psychotic symptoms, in conjunction with antipsychotics, the CBD group experienced marked lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms. Both the placebo and CBD groups experienced equal levels of treatment-induced adverse events, suggesting that CBD is well-tolerated.

These results suggest that CBD may be effective in treating not only schizophrenia but also psychotic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease and THC-induced psychosis.

Additional Point: CBD has shown to act in a neuroprotective manner and reduce the psychoactive effects of THC, making it a viable option for patients who have experienced negative side effects with THC.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2WztI04     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDSupplementing Antipsychotics with CBD Enhances Psychotic Symptom Treatment
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Benin Republic Hemp Improves Male Fertility

Cannabinoid-deficient Benin republic hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) improves semen parameters by reducing prolactin and enhancing antioxidant status

Cannabis sativa, specifically Nigerian hemp, has been found to have adverse effects on male fertility. It’s use has been linked to a decrease in semen parameters, germ cell proliferation, and reproductive organ weight. It can induce hyperprolactinemia, a condition causing infertility in 11% of men with low sperm count.

Data from the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency in Nigeria has suggested users preferentially obtaining hemp from the Benin Republic. In a recent study investigating the composition of Benin republic hemp, a lack of THC and lower levels of cannabinol were observed. Additionally, an ethanol extract of Benin republic hemp increased sperm count, morphology, and viability.   

Additional Point: Certain phytocannabinoids found in cannabis have demonstrated a detrimental effect on male fertility. However, analysis of hemp from the Benin republic shows a low to no levels of these toxic cannabinoids and evidence points to this particular hemp enhancing male fertility.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2Yzc26y     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDBenin Republic Hemp Improves Male Fertility
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Stress Increases the Probability of Drug Abuse

The Effects of Trait Emotional Intelligence on Adolescent Substance Use- Findings From a Hungarian Representative Survey

A recent study has revealed that teenagers who have a difficult time managing stress and appear to lack empathy were more likely to abuse tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis.

The studies initial goal was to determine if emotional intelligence could predict future drug abuse, but found that those with more empathy and interpersonal competencies were less likely to engage in substance abuse. This study provides data that may help to develop targeted drug prevention programs in order to lessen adolescent drug abuse or the development of any future substance abuse disorders. 

Highlighted in this study was the possible inaccuracy of the conclusions as the results may have been skewed by teenagers merely providing what they thought was a socially acceptable answer. Despite the fact that the majority of states have legalized the use of medical marijuana a stigma against cannabis use remains.

Stigma has and continues to stand in the way of medical research. If the consumption of cannabis were less frowned upon then perhaps more observational studies, studies that relied on self-reporting use, or even appropriate medical treatment, would be improved. The more information that can be gathered, the more accurate the research that can be conducted. In order to fully understand all the benefits and limitations of cannabinoids, although this also applies to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the uninformed stigma must also be eroded.

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This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2YB4dgE      inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDStress Increases the Probability of Drug Abuse
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Looking for a genetic explanation for “Cannabis Use Disorder”

Genome-wide association study implicates CHRNA2 in Cannabis Use Disorder

Roughly 9% of cannabis users become dependent. In a recent study, scientists identified a significant association between CHRNA2 gene expression and a diagnosis of Cannabis Use Disorder. In other words, genetics might help to explain why some people may find themselves more dependent upon cannabis than others.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2IVZJvJ     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDLooking for a genetic explanation for “Cannabis Use Disorder”
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