Gender

In Vivo Availability of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Levels in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis

A 2019 study found that patients with early-stage psychotic disorders had lower levels of CB1-R (Cannabinoid Receptor – 1) compared to healthy individuals. These findings suggest that targeting CB1R with cannabis-based products could potentially treat psychotic disorders. Interestingly, reductions in CB1R levels were associated with greater symptom severity and poorer cognitive functioning but only in male patients. More research is needed into the intersections of gender and psychotic disorders.

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Benjamin Caplan, MDIn Vivo Availability of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Levels in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis
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Benin Republic Hemp Improves Male Fertility

Cannabinoid-deficient Benin republic hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) improves semen parameters by reducing prolactin and enhancing antioxidant status

Cannabis sativa, specifically Nigerian hemp, has been found to have adverse effects on male fertility. It’s use has been linked to a decrease in semen parameters, germ cell proliferation, and reproductive organ weight. It can induce hyperprolactinemia, a condition causing infertility in 11% of men with low sperm count.

Data from the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency in Nigeria has suggested users preferentially obtaining hemp from the Benin Republic. In a recent study investigating the composition of Benin republic hemp, a lack of THC and lower levels of cannabinol were observed. Additionally, an ethanol extract of Benin republic hemp increased sperm count, morphology, and viability.   

Additional Point: Certain phytocannabinoids found in cannabis have demonstrated a detrimental effect on male fertility. However, analysis of hemp from the Benin republic shows a low to no levels of these toxic cannabinoids and evidence points to this particular hemp enhancing male fertility.

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Benjamin Caplan, MDBenin Republic Hemp Improves Male Fertility
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Sex differences in the anxiety effects of cannabinoids

In overarching trends, one pattern that is seen in the medical literature is a greater tendency for males to be more likely to develop drug abuse disorders than female counterparts, whilst females are more likely to develop anxiety disorders than male counterparts.

Of course, these trends are merely observational patterns in the current literature, which represents a biased perspective of biased subjects, and certainly not etched in stone. Further, many people do not conform to one pre-determined organization system as simple as gender to help educate whether they would be likely to develop drug dependence or anxiety, and even others don’t conform to a single gender. So, a sizeable grain of salt must be taken with what we understand from this literature.

That given, the relevant punch line here is what role might cannabis play in inducing or reducing anxiety across sexes, and how does cannabis might relate to addiction/dependence.

We are still at early stages of these important questions, but one recent study found, that female rats were significantly more likely than male rats to experience anxiety when given large doses of cannabis.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2J15XdL     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDSex differences in the anxiety effects of cannabinoids
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Obesity, Cannabis, and Gender Differences

The endocannabinoid system regulates energy homeostasis and is linked to obesity development, but the exact dynamic and brain regulation, during obesity progression, is incompletely understood. This study is the first of its kind to look at the time course of responses in two normal, inborn endocannabinoids, 2-AG and Anandamide, in male and female mice during diet-induced obesity. They also explore changes in brown adipose tissue, which help to control body heat and weight. They look at changes in blood levels associated with high-fat diets and over-feeding. Interestingly, they found that changes are sexually dimorphic: hypothalamic cannabinoid levels were higher in female mice, who became obese at later time points than males. This study contributes to the understanding of hypothalamic regulation of obesity, which currently affects nearly 1/3 of the world’s population. http://bit.ly/2QCrA4M

Benjamin Caplan, MDObesity, Cannabis, and Gender Differences
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