Heavy Use

Incidents of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs Reveals A Need for Stricter Regulations

Title: A review of drug abuse in recently reported cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) in Asia, USA, and Europe

A recent literature review has found that the current driving regulations in Asia, Europe, and the US have not prevented cases of driving under the influence of drugs. The authors observed steady trends of incidences of driving under the influence in all three regions, despite legislature specifically enacted against such actions. In the literature, there is a consistent recommendation that drivers should be regularly tested, especially in the case of an accident, in order to gather more data on the role of drugs in traffic accidents. 


This review highlights the different illicit drugs that contribute to traffic accidents, depending on the region of the world. Cannabis is legal in certain areas of Europe, whereas it is still considered an illicit substance here in the US, and many other locations, worldwide. Looking at the differences in severity or circumstance of the accidents between the type of illicit drug used may provide data to create more beneficial regulations for each country. As the legal status of cannabis continues to evolve, and it becomes more common to find drivers on the road who have consumed a minimal amount of cannabis, new screening techniques will likely be developed to help the culture establish what it considers an “acceptable amount” of blood-borne cannabinoids to be.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2JucMot     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDIncidents of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs Reveals A Need for Stricter Regulations
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Standardized Registries may Improve Our Knowledge about Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Title: Cyclic vomiting syndrome- Pathophysiology, comorbidities, and future research directions

A recent article has called for the establishment of a multicenter registry in order to learn more about cyclic vomiting syndrome and related disorders. Creating such a registry would provide a database of patients for clinical trial recruitment, research on patient outcomes across different treatment methods, the underlying mechanism for the disorder, and the ability to identify potential biomarkers for the disorder. The registry would expand our understanding of the disorder, on all fronts, and hopefully, reveal the most effective treatment method. 


Could such a registry be created while still safeguarding patient privacy?


Highlighted in this article is the similarity of cyclic vomiting syndrome and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). CHS is often misdiagnosed or goes undiagnosed for an exorbitant amount of time. By creating this registry for cyclic vomiting syndrome and related disorders, including CHS, the same information about genetics, underlying mechanisms, and effective treatments could also be determined.

Finding a genetic basis for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome would support patients looking into cannabis-based medicine to decide if cannabis would even be an effective treatment, by allowing them to discover possible side effects to which they might be more susceptible.

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This paper is also stored here:     http://bit.ly/2JtDAFm    inside the CED Foundation Archive


See the full available literature on Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome here: http://bit.ly/2XHfdrI


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Benjamin Caplan, MDStandardized Registries may Improve Our Knowledge about Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
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False Memory Formation Does not Differ between Cannabis Users and Controls

Title: False memory formation in cannabis users- a field study

This new study has revealed that although cannabis use does not increase the rate of false memory acquisition, cannabis use did increase the uncertainty of participants. It was also determined that intoxicated cannabis users were less accurate when recognizing true events, providing evidence that cannabis intoxication hinders memory formation.

This research provides a basis of knowledge for those interviewing people under the influence of cannabis for legal proceedings to determine the validity of their statements. If cannabis intoxication increases the uncertainty and liberal answers provided by users then their statements should be used sparingly or well-corroborated. 


This research highlights the importance of understanding cannabis for legal proceedings. More and more state governments are legalizing medical and recreational cannabis, each year, increasing the amount of those eligible to legally consume cannabis. As cannabis use continues to climb in popularity, witnesses or others interviewed in legal settings may not provide the most accurate information. Acute cannabis use should be a consideration related to legal proceedings so that the users’ statements can be weighed appropriately.  

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This paper is also stored here:     http://bit.ly/2Jt6eWY    inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDFalse Memory Formation Does not Differ between Cannabis Users and Controls
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Stress Increases the Probability of Drug Abuse

The Effects of Trait Emotional Intelligence on Adolescent Substance Use- Findings From a Hungarian Representative Survey

A recent study has revealed that teenagers who have a difficult time managing stress and appear to lack empathy were more likely to abuse tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis.

The studies initial goal was to determine if emotional intelligence could predict future drug abuse, but found that those with more empathy and interpersonal competencies were less likely to engage in substance abuse. This study provides data that may help to develop targeted drug prevention programs in order to lessen adolescent drug abuse or the development of any future substance abuse disorders. 

Highlighted in this study was the possible inaccuracy of the conclusions as the results may have been skewed by teenagers merely providing what they thought was a socially acceptable answer. Despite the fact that the majority of states have legalized the use of medical marijuana a stigma against cannabis use remains.

Stigma has and continues to stand in the way of medical research. If the consumption of cannabis were less frowned upon then perhaps more observational studies, studies that relied on self-reporting use, or even appropriate medical treatment, would be improved. The more information that can be gathered, the more accurate the research that can be conducted. In order to fully understand all the benefits and limitations of cannabinoids, although this also applies to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the uninformed stigma must also be eroded.

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This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2YB4dgE      inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDStress Increases the Probability of Drug Abuse
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Adolescent E-Cigarette Use Increased by 78%

Characteristics of Daily E-Cigarette Use and Acquisition Means Among a National Sample of Adolescents

From 2017 to 2018 the amount of middle school and high school electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users increased by 48% and 78% respectively. One of the first studies examining the association between e-cigarette characteristics and daily use among US adolescents is calling for comprehensive tobacco control efforts to reduce e-cigarette and nicotine addiction among adolescents. 38% of adolescent users report using their e-cigarette devices for cannabis which can be hazardous due to the lack of regulation. The potential risks associated with nicotine use and the dangerous misuse of these devices for other substances is putting youth’s health at risk.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2Ff733m     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDAdolescent E-Cigarette Use Increased by 78%
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Looking for a genetic explanation for “Cannabis Use Disorder”

Genome-wide association study implicates CHRNA2 in Cannabis Use Disorder

Roughly 9% of cannabis users become dependent. In a recent study, scientists identified a significant association between CHRNA2 gene expression and a diagnosis of Cannabis Use Disorder. In other words, genetics might help to explain why some people may find themselves more dependent upon cannabis than others.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2IVZJvJ     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDLooking for a genetic explanation for “Cannabis Use Disorder”
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Neem Oil vs Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

Some people are concerned that Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS,) a rare condition involving cyclical vomiting, may be caused by neem oil or pesticides. However, symptoms are more consistent with an overload of CB1 receptors, circumstances that occur primarily with habitual, large-volume consumers. Here, an interesting review of the ongoing public conversation: http://bit.ly/2LepwAV

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Benjamin Caplan, MDNeem Oil vs Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome
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Case Studies Expose Under Recognition of Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome

“Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome: still under-recognized after all these years

After two years of chronic vomiting and pain and dozens of trips to emergency rooms a 23-year-old woman was found to have cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). Physicians are still unable to recognize the early symptoms of CHS as cannabis use is still in a legal gray area in much of the country. A lack of research, recognition, and trust often prevents a quick diagnosis when an illness is related to cannabis, leading to multiple referrals and invasive tests.

CHS was first described 15 years ago yet it is not frequently recognized in patients. The case study featured in this blog post highlights patients and physicians’ outcry for tolerance and support so that cannabis-related illnesses can be efficiently and effectively engaged.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2IxMxNx     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDCase Studies Expose Under Recognition of Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome
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Vaping cannabis among adolescents: prevalence and associations with tobacco use from a cross-sectional study in the USA

Out of 2,835 high school students from North Carolina, 272 students (or 9.6%) reported ever vaping cannabis. Interestingly, the odds of ever vaping cannabis were significantly higher among males (11.0%) compared with females (8.2%), and significantly higher among non-Hispanic white students (11.3%) compared with non-Hispanic black students (5.0%).

It’s clear that white males are the most likely to have ever vaping cannabis. Why might minority students engage less with recreational drug use?

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2L6zYdv     inside the CED Foundation Archive

Benjamin Caplan, MDVaping cannabis among adolescents: prevalence and associations with tobacco use from a cross-sectional study in the USA
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Capsaicin Cream Treats Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome in Adolescents

Capsaicin Cream for Treatment of CHS adolescent

Researchers have found that capsaicin cream is an effective and safe method of treating cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) in adolescents. Capsaicin cream has previously been shown to be effective at treating CHS in adults but adolescents have previously been treated with haloperidol, a drug known to have serious side effects. Capsaicin cream offers a much safer and more cost-effective method of treatment for adolescents.

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This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2F8Gtcc      inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDCapsaicin Cream Treats Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome in Adolescents
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