Heavy Use

“Liver toxicity” of mice force-fed with unreasonable amounts CBD

Here, an excellent example of how valuable it is for scientific literature to be read critically and thoughtfully. When reporters read, or extract, or convey only partial conclusions, it is all-too-easy for consumers to absorb an incomplete, undigested message. As consumers of journalism, the public deserves a more knowledgeable understanding. Here (http://bit.ly/2KV0jeG), Forbes (Mike Adams) conveys an unfortunate lack of deep consideration in the reporting. Thankfully, a brief quote is conveyed by Dr. Koturbash, who “was quick to point out that the CBD products coming to market may not pose this particular risk” – but this stone-throw of even-handedness falls short to appropriately balance an article already dripping with misgivings and incomplete evaluation of the material at hand.

For a more layered view of the science, the word “gavage,” as was applied to the mice in the study, describes force-feeding animals with a tube down their throats, often taped to mouths which are then kept gaping open. This is meant to simulate the biological processes of eating (different from giving meds IV, for example.) There is no regard to the stress that this process causes the animals, as they are treated as though they are biological CBD-processing machines. In the days where many people are taking 10mg pills of CBD per day, the amounts of CBD that were force-fed to these animals in this study, if translated to humans, would be 4,305mg, 12,915mg, and 43,050mg over 10 days, or 17,220mg, 51,660mg, and 172,200mg in one-shot doses.) For reference, these days, most dispensaries sell CBD in doses of 10mg, 20mg, up to 2-300mg.)

In the study, the authors suggest that they allow animals to eat “ad libitum,” as if to convey that they are treated with a buffet. And yet, the animals being stuffed with 43,050mg (human equivalent) of CBD still lost weight, while others (given 172,200mg (human equivalent) had uneven weight distribution.) To any reader considering these values critically, it must seem absurd to make conclusions about the actions of CBD as what is causing these effects, as if the fact of over-stuffing itself has no impact at all.

An analogy to this study: If you add 17,000 cars (or 172,000!) to a tunnel on the way to the airport, and stuff each car full of way too many people, there might be problematic levels of concern inside that tunnel.

Let’s hope to see more even-handed consideration and reporting from Forbes, in the future.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2WWNOGA     inside the CED Foundation Archive

Here, another study that shows very different results. Instead of overstuffing mice w/ unrealistic amounts, if one administers CBD at sensible doses in the same population of mice, it turns out that CBD could directly reduce alcohol drinking, improve healthy processes in the liver, and alcohol-related brain damage…

“CBD reduces alcohol-related steatosis & fibrosis in the liver by reducing lipid accumulation, stimulating autophagy, modulating inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, & by inducing death of activated hepatic stellate cells” This new study:

This paper is also stored here: http://bit.ly/2IAvzOz  inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MD“Liver toxicity” of mice force-fed with unreasonable amounts CBD
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Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome is Frequently Misdiagnosed as Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Association of Marijuana Use and Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

A recent study has found that a subset of patients diagnosed with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome actually suffers from Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome is a rare condition that primarily occurs in daily, long-term users of cannabis, more common among males than females. Chronic cannabis consumers should inform their physicians of any illicit drug use, as well as any cannabis consumption, during routine check-ups and/or emergency room visits, to ensure accurate diagnoses can be made.

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This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2F9YS8u      inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDCannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome is Frequently Misdiagnosed as Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
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New Study Finds Cannabis May Be “Unsafe” For Pregnant Women

https://www.wbur.org/commonhealth/2019/06/18/cannabis-unsafe-pregnant-women

In a study of 661, 617 pregnant women, researchers found that cannabis use was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. But these findings may be limited due to other risk factors like tobacco, alcohol, and opioid use. 

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2L0vTaY     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDNew Study Finds Cannabis May Be “Unsafe” For Pregnant Women
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How to prevent inappropriate teen use?

Especially in Colorado and Washington, people are taking note of teens’ use and access to potent marijuana, and many are concerned that there are not enough measures in place to prevent this. Newly legalized states should look into this before it becomes a national issue. https://wapo.st/2Fgmto9

Benjamin Caplan, MDHow to prevent inappropriate teen use?
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Evidence for Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabidiol, Including Treatment of Ischemic Strokes

Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke

Cannabidiol (CBD) has a unique therapeutic profile as it has a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, limited side-effects, and patients do not seem to develop an insurmountable tolerance. Research currently focussed on the therapeutic benefits of CBD has demonstrated long-lasting neuroprotective properties against global and focal ischemic injury, such as ischemic stroke. This piece points to CBD as a major component of cannabis-based medicine as a non-psychoactive component. Further research is needed to evaluate the full clinical capabilities of CBD, including its neuroprotective effect.

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The US patent on Cannabinoids as Antioxidants and Neuroprotectants, from 1999: https://patents.google.com/patent/US6630507B1/en

This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2L0PBn3     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDEvidence for Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabidiol, Including Treatment of Ischemic Strokes
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Organ Donors can Safely Consume Cannabis

Effects of Drug Abuse, Smoking and Alcohol on Donor Hearts and Lungs

A review article that discusses how drug use can affect donor organs has revealed that receiving organs, such as a heart or lungs, from a donor who has used cannabis does not add risk to the procedure. A careful assessment of any donor organ should still be conducted, but having a history of cannabis use does not prevent someone from safely donating.

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This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2KPxsIx      inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDOrgan Donors can Safely Consume Cannabis
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Cognitive Function in Aging Cocaine Smokers is Marginally Lower than Controls

Cognitive function in aging cocaine smokers

A recently published study looking to expose the functional status of older drug users has found that most of their cognitive abilities are equal to their peers who have never smoked cocaine, except for a marginally lower verbal comprehension. Similar studies should continue in order to determine how chronic drug users will affect or challenge public health systems in the future.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2FbOUmZ      inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDCognitive Function in Aging Cocaine Smokers is Marginally Lower than Controls
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Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Young Adult Smokers: Stages of Change and Stability over Time

Study finds that most young adult smokers engage in multiple other health risk behaviors. When placed in an intervention, participants were most ready to change their stress management and least ready to change their cannabis use.

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This paper is also stored here:  http://bit.ly/31mTqIM       inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDMultiple Health Risk Behaviors in Young Adult Smokers: Stages of Change and Stability over Time
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Video: Cannabis For Symptoms of chronic pain, seizures, and inflammation

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This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2l4sexZ      inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDVideo: Cannabis For Symptoms of chronic pain, seizures, and inflammation
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Guanfacine reducing cannabis withdrawal symptoms?

Guanfacine decreases symptoms of cannabis withdrawal in daily cannabis smokers

A study performed on daily cannabis users with cannabis use disorder (CUD) found evidence for Guanfacine to reduce the irritability and disturbances to sleep, characteristic of cannabis withdrawal. It is potentially a viable, improved alternative to Lofexidine, another treatment for CUD which happens to result in some adverse effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, and altered food intake. However, beyond these effects, while Lofexidine reduced cannabis self-administration following abstinence, Guanfacine did not in this study. Regardless, further research on the therapeutic effects of Guanfacine may be worthwhile and could help reduce cannabis cravings following withdrawal.

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This paper is also stored here: http://bit.ly/2wsKbZh inside the CED Foundation Archive

Benjamin Caplan, MDGuanfacine reducing cannabis withdrawal symptoms?
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