Neuropathy

Medical Marijuana Offers Benefits Comparable to Prescription Medication, Without the Side Effects

Title: Preferences for Medical Marijuana over Prescription Medications Among Persons Living with Chronic Conditions: Alternative, Complementary, and Tapering Uses

In a survey of 30 patients using medical cannabis for a range of diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, hepatitis C, PTSD, among others, patients reported an array of benefits they have reaped from cannabis use. Patients successfully used cannabis in several ways: as an alternative to prescription medication, complementarily with prescription medicine, and to gradually replace use of prescription medication.

Benefits described by participants included the effects of cannabis lasting longer than that of opioids, lower risk of addiction, fewer side-effects. Patients also saw their sleep, anxiety, appetite, and adverse reactions improve with the use of medical cannabis. Larger, more controlled studies may suggest cannabis more affirmatively as an alternative or complementary therapy with prescription medications.

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Benjamin Caplan, MDMedical Marijuana Offers Benefits Comparable to Prescription Medication, Without the Side Effects
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New Developments of Cannabinoid-Based Drugs

Title: Novel approaches in clinical development of cannabinoid drugs

A pamphlet has recently been published that highlights new approaches in the clinical development of cannabinoid-based therapies. The pamphlet begins with a look into how current cannabinoids affect patients based on gender, stress, physiological variations, and also delves into how cannabis works on the body in general.

A novel therapy that features an oral version of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a synthetic activator of cannabinoid-receptor-1 (CB1) is explored in this piece and frames it to be a promising future therapy. The pharmacological properties of these two novel therapies were optimized during development after various analysis techniques, forming medications that the authors hope to see in future clinical trials. 

Although the authors remain hopeful that their cannabis-based therapies will reach clinical trials soon, trials featuring cannabinoids are difficult to test in a formal setting because of a dire lack of funding. The federal government still lists cannabis as a Schedule I substance, under the Controlled Substances Act, meaning that the federal government does not support the idea that cannabis has any medical use. Considering the legal status of cannabis, only privately-funded studies are able to take place, and unfortunately, that leaves cannabis research in an area of complete bias and prohibitively underfunded. Considering the massive literature supporting a myriad of novel therapeutic benefits, this is a costly reality to the health and well-being of millions.


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Benjamin Caplan, MDNew Developments of Cannabinoid-Based Drugs
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CB1 and CB2 receptors play differential roles in early zebrafish locomotor development

Scientists found that blocking CB1 receptors and CB2-receptors in young zebrafish resulted in morphological deficits, reductions in heart rate, and non-inflated swim bladders. These findings indicate that the endocannabinoid system is pivotal to the development of the locomotor system in zebrafish, and that disturbances to the endocannabinoid system in early life may have detrimental effects.

The translation of these effects to humans is obviously not direct, but it is important for science to learn about safety and expected effects, to examine how chemistry interacts in petri dishes, how basic organic/animal functions are impacted in a living thing, and when the time is appropriate, to then assess any effects in humans

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Benjamin Caplan, MDCB1 and CB2 receptors play differential roles in early zebrafish locomotor development
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Video: Do-It-Yourself Cannabis Tinctures

One of the terrific realities of modern Cannabis is that it is possible, and often quite simple, to make effective products at home. With suitable education and access to testing facilities, the soil, nutrients, and plant growth can be supported at home, lab-tested for make-up and potency, as well as safety-checked for potential microscopic contaminants, and ultimately, individualized medicine can be created right at home!

Here is a sample instructional for just one way that cannabis tincture can be made at home. There are countless others and hopefully, many that are yet to be discovered!

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Benjamin Caplan, MDVideo: Do-It-Yourself Cannabis Tinctures
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Student-Athletes are at an Increased Risk for Binge Drinking and Substance Use

Title: Psychological correlates and binge drinking behaviours among Canadian youth- a cross-sectional analysis of the mental health pilot data from the COMPASS study

A recent study has examined data from the COMPASS program and found that student-athletes in Canada were more likely to engage in binge-drinking and illicit substance use. Researchers focussed on the measure of flourishing, defined as an overall healthy mental state and emotional connectedness, and how flourishing related to concerning drinking and substance use behavior. Student-athletes were found to be the most at risk for binge-drinking, defined as consuming 5 or more drinks in a single session, and those more likely to binge-drink were also more likely to co-use illicit substances. This research provides evidence for the formation of targeted prevention programs.

Cannabis use is banned among athletes by most sports organizations. Cannabis appeals to athletes considering the many different consumption methods, allowing discreet consumption and personalization with variable potential opportunities for relief. Cannabinoids are generally naturally occurring substances unless clearly manufactured, and have been shown to be beneficial for post-workout recovery, muscle soreness, anxiety, sleep, and relaxation. All of those symptoms, including the emotionally driven ones, are common among student-athletes who often feel an immense amount of pressure to perform in competition. As in most other areas of modern culture, Cannabidiol (CBD) finds itself in a grey area for most sports organizations’ substance regulations given that it is not intoxicating and readily available with a notable safety profile. Even if cannabis is not federally legal, CBD is so widely available that many athletes are embracing it, in lieu of more dangerous, or potentially addictive, medications.

Tweet: A recent study has examined data from the #COMPASS program and found that #studentathletes in Canada were more likely to engage in #binge-drinking and illicit substance use. Read this and other linked studies:

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Benjamin Caplan, MDStudent-Athletes are at an Increased Risk for Binge Drinking and Substance Use
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Genes in the Endocannabinoid and Opioid Systems may Provide Biomarkers of Obesity

Title: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence for a Distinct Regulation of Mu Opioid and Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Genes Expression in Obesity

Researchers have recently found that alterations of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1)  contribute to the development of obesity. This phenomenon was shown in rat models who were given a high-fat diet and humans currently dealing with obesity. Due to the possibility of the up-regulation of CNR1 and OPRM1 providing a mechanism for developing the obesity phenotype, those two genes could serve as biomarkers for obesity. Fortunately, the up-regulation of CNR1 and OPRM1 is reversible and may also provide a target for combatting obesity and encouraging weight loss in obese individuals. 

Highlighted here are the interactions of the endocannabinoid and opioid systems. Contradictory evidence concerning the interaction of the two systems has come out in recent years making it difficult to come to any conclusions. The endocannabinoid system has been thought to provide a safe and effective method for combatting the opioid crisis. Opioids are highly addictive and dangerous, but they are an efficient way to minimize pain which has kept them in mainstream medicine. Opioids have led to countless overdoses in recent decades causing researchers to search for a more ethical option for pain relief. Cannabis has a much better safety profile, poses no risk of overdose, and offers a welcome change of pace to traditional choices. Conclusive research is still needed to confirm, and reconfirm the details.

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Benjamin Caplan, MDGenes in the Endocannabinoid and Opioid Systems may Provide Biomarkers of Obesity
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Cannabinoids Treat Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders

Title: Nabilone administration in refractory chronic diarrhea- a case series

A new study reveals the efficacy of treating chronic gastrointestinal disorders with cannabinoids, such as Nabilone. Researchers followed case studies in which patients were given nabilone which greatly reduced symptoms of chronic diarrhea and weight gain, over a period of three months.

The cannabinoid treatment also reduced the abdominal pain felt by patients and improved their overall quality of life. Considering the favorable safety profile of cannabinoids and the effectiveness demonstrated in the patients, cannabinoids were deemed an appropriate and clinically beneficial method for the treatment of chronic gastrointestinal disorders, such as chronic diarrhea. 

Highlighted by this article are the many symptoms cannabis used to treat before the prohibition of cannabis and the scheduling of the medication under the Controlled Substances Act. Cannabis has been used in eastern medicine, for thousands of years, and used to be a prevalent medication in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and has just recently been re-recognized as an option to treat anorexia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, and various sleep disorders. Cannabis was once a well-recognized medication, but it has been mercilessly slandered by politicians. The rise and fall of cannabis have largely been politically driven pushes, and the plant and its effects deserve further study to examine the scope and efficacy of its therapeutic benefits. 

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Benjamin Caplan, MDCannabinoids Treat Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders
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Medicinal Value of Citrus Peels

Citrus peels waste as a source of value-added compounds: extraction and quantification of bioactive polyphenols

Previous analysis of citrus peels has demonstrated high content of biologically active polyphenols, with significant quantities of flavonoids and phenolic acids present. Both these compounds have been associated with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-allergic, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial properties.

A recent paper points out that citrus peel waste alone makes up nearly 50% of wet fruit mass discarded as waste and proposes extraction of polyphenols to minimize waste. The bioactive substances in peels can be used in dietary supplements, cosmetics, food products, and pharmaceutical products.

Citrus peels contain significant polyphenols, compounds which have health benefits ranging from antioxidant to anticancer. Polyphenols are also found in large quantities in cannabis, undoubtedly contributing to it many of its well-known health benefits. 

Image result for citrus peel eating

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Benjamin Caplan, MDMedicinal Value of Citrus Peels
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Topical Cannabis to help heal chronic wounds

Another thoughtful piece by Abbie Rosner at Forbes, reviewing the healing of chronic wounds with topical cannabis treatments.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/abbierosner/2019/07/09/cannabis-based-medicine-a-breakthrough-for-healing-intractable-chronic-wounds/#7b1362bf9387

Benjamin Caplan, MDTopical Cannabis to help heal chronic wounds
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A Report on the Psychiatric Effects of Cannabis Demonstrates the Progress and the Gaps in Cannabis Knowledge

Psychiatric effects of cannabis 

A report published by the British Journal of Psychiatry in 2001 demonstrates the progress the medical community has made but also what gaps still need to be filled in when utilizing cannabis. This report found that excess consumption of cannabis leads to feelings of panic and anxiety and that 15% of those willing to respond to a survey experienced acute psychotic symptoms. It was also found that cannabis dependence can occur, as well as withdrawal, which can last for close to a week.  This article was a review that synthesized relevant studies but also claimed that the casual conclusions of these papers were difficult to find or replicate. 

This paper is interesting given its age considering it put out what was current data but then ended by stating the casual conclusions of each paper may not stand. 18 years later, some of the data has stood, and some have not. Users can gain a tolerance to cannabis but many are looking to mitigate it. The author uses the word dependence when discussing cannabis which is a word that holds weight and is up for debate. Intoxicating cannabinoids, like THC, affect the reward center, but non-altering cannabinoids, such as CBD, tend to work more noticeably outside of the brain, although all have mixed effects in both regions. Cannabinoids are not all the same, apply quite differently to various ailments, and have divergent effects. Blanketing an entire crop with a misinformed warning label seems irresponsible and unduly harsh. Users or those looking into cannabis-based medicine are encouraged to do their research. 

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Benjamin Caplan, MDA Report on the Psychiatric Effects of Cannabis Demonstrates the Progress and the Gaps in Cannabis Knowledge
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