The sesquiterpene beta-caryophyllene oxide attenuates ethanol drinking and place conditioning in mice
It has recently been revealed that the terpene beta-caryophyllene and its derivative, beta-caryophyllene oxide, are able to lessen the sedative effects of alcohol while not affecting its pharmacokinetics. Researchers determined that a high dose of ß-caryophyllene oxide was 10 times more effective at reducing the sedative effects than its precursor by conducting a loss of righting reflex (LORR) assay on mice who had been administered a consistent amount of ethanol. Interestingly the caryophyllene compounds were found to act on cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), not directly interact with the ethanol, and therefore not affect the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. This study provides a basis for further analysis of the mechanism for alcohol modulation by the endocannabinoid system.
The need for research concerning drug interactions with cannabinoids, both endogenous, naturally occurring, or synthesized, is emphasized by this research. Opioid and cannabinoid interactions have been looked into but the results are inconsistent across the board, and very little is known about how cannabinoids interact with other common medications such as ibuprofen, birth control, blood thinners, and alcohol. This research is vital moving forward as state legislature continues to recognize the benefit of medical marijuana and chemists and pharmacists need to recognize how little is known about the mechanism behind the endocannabinoid systems far-reaching effects.
The study is available for review or download here
Title: Novel approaches in clinical development of cannabinoid drugs
A pamphlet has recently been published that highlights new approaches in the clinical development of cannabinoid-based therapies. The pamphlet begins with a look into how current cannabinoids affect patients based on gender, stress, physiological variations, and also delves into how cannabis works on the body in general.
A novel therapy that features an oral version of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a synthetic activator of cannabinoid-receptor-1 (CB1) is explored in this piece and frames it to be a promising future therapy. The pharmacological properties of these two novel therapies were optimized during development after various analysis techniques, forming medications that the authors hope to see in future clinical trials.
Although the authors remain hopeful that their cannabis-based therapies will reach clinical trials soon, trials featuring cannabinoids are difficult to test in a formal setting because of a dire lack of funding. The federal government still lists cannabis as a Schedule I substance, under the Controlled Substances Act, meaning that the federal government does not support the idea that cannabis has any medical use. Considering the legal status of cannabis, only privately-funded studies are able to take place, and unfortunately, that leaves cannabis research in an area of complete bias and prohibitively underfunded. Considering the massive literature supporting a myriad of novel therapeutic benefits, this is a costly reality to the health and well-being of millions.
A sneak peek at the latest news coming about solo sciences, inc!
Imagine a future of cannabis, where consumers have the control of purchase decisions, based on accurate information about the brand and products they may want, and tamper-proof, third-party verification that what we are buying is actually what the package says it is? (and then… consider that this concept applies to products beyond cannabis, from food to beauty products, toys, entertainment…)
“The world of cannabis is murky, unpredictable, and often not safe,” said Ashesh Shah, CEO and founder of solo sciences and a former CIA profiler. “As brands and governments are struggling to fight the illicit market, we created solo* to solve that problem by creating transparency into what cannabis providers are actually selling to consumers. solo* is designed to keep people out of the dark when it comes to what they’re consuming and putting into their bodies, so they feel secure and knowledgeable about the products they’re purchasing.”
If stored properly, cannabis can last up to two years. We are starting to see ground-breaking technology rising in the industry, including filtration of humidity built into packaging, as well as permeable membranes that support the wise guarding of both hydration and terpene/flavonoid concentration.
Title: Impact of N, P, K and humic acids supplementation on the chemical profile of medical cannabis (Cannabis sativa L)
A recent study has come out revealing the effects of nutritional supplements (plant food) on cannabinoid content during the growth of the cannabis plant.
Researchers enhanced nutritional supplements such as humic acids and inorganic nitrogen and potassium and determined that the changes in supplement levels caused variations in the cannabinoid content of the plant organs. This research has demonstrated that maintaining specific nutritional supplements effects the chemical properties of cannabis plants and may play a role in standardizing the cannabinoid content in plants, no matter the region of growth. This knowledge may one day help cultivators with the process of standardizing cultivars, and perhaps help organize strain names and content across state lines.
This work spotlights the inconsistency between cannabis plants, even if they share the same name. The nutrients cannabis plants grow in have been proven to alter the cannabinoid content which changes (sometimes drastically) the effects felt by patients who consume that plant. Growers or enthusiasts who grow cannabis at home may be buying seeds from a known strain, but the same seeds produce a completely different strain, depending on the growing conditions. Standardizing growth conditions will hopefully help cultivators produce strains of the same name with consistent cannabinoid content, making buying safer and somewhat more uniformly regulatable.
Tweet: A recent study has come out revealing the effects of #nutritional supplements on #cannabinoid content during #cannabis plant growth. Read this and other linked studies:
Title: Model-based analysis on systemic availability of coadministered cannabinoids after controlled vaporized administration
A new study revealed findings that vaporizing cannabidiol (CBD) with ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) lowers the systemic availability of THC.
Researchers analyzed the blood plasma level of CBD and THC in a randomized, double-blind study, and found that those who inhaled a high dose of CBD were found to have lower levels of THC. Frequent cannabis users were found to have only minorly decreased levels of THC in their plasma when high doses of CBD was coadministered. Future studies should be conducted to examine the validity of these results for other consumption methods.
This work highlights how those who have consumed too much THC can combat some of the symptoms associated with THC by consuming CBD. Occasionally, cannabis users may overindulge in THC and feel anxiety, panic, or dizziness. One of the best ways to combat such overindulgence (and lower the effects of THC) is to consume a high dose of CBD. Other, non-cannabis related, methods are also commonly recommended, such as relaxation or food with high levels of the terpenes caryophyllene and limonene. When using cannabis it’s important to start low and go slow in order to minimize the possibility of overindulgence.
Anti-histaminic Effects of Resveratrol and Silymarin on Human Gingival Fibroblasts
It has recently been revealed that the flavonoidsresveratrol and silymarin have an anti-histaminic effect on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HGF are cells that compose part of the gum tissue in the oral cavity. Silymarin and resveratrol were already known to have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, but a recently published study has now revealed that silymarin alone and a combination of the two flavonoids both provide novel therapeutic approaches for inflammation due to allergies.
Dramatic response to Laetrile and cannabidiol (CBD) oil in a patient with metastatic low grade serous ovarian carcinoma
A recent case study has examined a patient’s response to the consumption of cannabidiol (CBD) as a treatment for a rare type of ovarian cancer. Rather than participate in chemotherapy, which has been shown to only be effective in 5% of patients with low grade serous ovarian carcinoma, an 81-year-old decided to take a combination of amygdalin and CBD. Although CBD has only been shown to have effective anti-cancer properties in murine models the featured patient reported a significant decrease in tumor size, revealing that CBD may, in fact, be an effective treatment for patients looking into alternative care methods.
Although proven ineffective, the use of amygdalin highlights alternative therapies derived from naturally occurring chemicals found in common plants. Flavonoids and terpenes are chemical components of cannabis plants, also found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, that are just now being investigated for their therapeutic benefits. The results of those inquiries may prove useful for similar patients suffering from illnesses that are resistant to the usual treatments.