All posts tagged: Anxiety

Stress Increases the Probability of Drug Abuse

The Effects of Trait Emotional Intelligence on Adolescent Substance Use- Findings From a Hungarian Representative Survey

A recent study has revealed that teenagers who have a difficult time managing stress and appear to lack empathy were more likely to abuse tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis.

The studies initial goal was to determine if emotional intelligence could predict future drug abuse, but found that those with more empathy and interpersonal competencies were less likely to engage in substance abuse. This study provides data that may help to develop targeted drug prevention programs in order to lessen adolescent drug abuse or the development of any future substance abuse disorders. 

Highlighted in this study was the possible inaccuracy of the conclusions as the results may have been skewed by teenagers merely providing what they thought was a socially acceptable answer. Despite the fact that the majority of states have legalized the use of medical marijuana a stigma against cannabis use remains.

Stigma has and continues to stand in the way of medical research. If the consumption of cannabis were less frowned upon then perhaps more observational studies, studies that relied on self-reporting use, or even appropriate medical treatment, would be improved. The more information that can be gathered, the more accurate the research that can be conducted. In order to fully understand all the benefits and limitations of cannabinoids, although this also applies to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the uninformed stigma must also be eroded.

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Benjamin Caplan, MDStress Increases the Probability of Drug Abuse
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The Relationship between Cannabis and Schizophrenia

Cannabis and Psychosis: Are We any Closer to Understanding the Relationship?

Despite the constant technological gains in medicine, there is still insufficient information and knowledge about who is at risk of developing cannabis psychosis prior to an individual’s exposure to cannabis. Controlled research is limited due to the legal status of cannabis but the growing number of states legalizing medicinal and recreational use of cannabis will likely provide a naturalistic experiment that will produce a prevention strategy for the condition. Current schizophrenia research is limited to western male populations and an overemphasis on the biological model; future research should extend to a more diverse population and sociocultural factors that may lead to schizophrenia.

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Benjamin Caplan, MDThe Relationship between Cannabis and Schizophrenia
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Video: Cannabinoid Intervention for PTSD: Where to Next?

The endocannabinoid system has long been recognized as a promising target for PTSD treatment.

Here, a 2018 literature review summarizes the risks and benefits of cannabis as a treatment option. Watch our video adaptation, and review the source literature, below:


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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2XgnrXn     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDVideo: Cannabinoid Intervention for PTSD: Where to Next?
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Non-Psychoactive Cannabis Treatments for Chronic Muscle Pain

Cannabidiol, cannabinol and their combinations act as peripheral analgesics in a rat model of myofascial pain

Some of the non-psychoactive cannabinoids in cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN), have recently been found to produce analgesic effects (pain relief) in mouse models. A combination of CBD and CBN causes a decrease in sensitization of muscles, leading researchers to believe the combination could provide relief for those suffering from chronic muscle pain disorders. Cannabis products are already being prescribed for chronic pain disorders and this new study provides evidence that cannabis-based medicine can also be applicable when treating chronic pain associated with disorders such as fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorders.

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This paper is also stored here:     http://bit.ly/2L1AF8d    inside the CED Foundation Archive

Benjamin Caplan, MDNon-Psychoactive Cannabis Treatments for Chronic Muscle Pain
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Sex differences in the anxiety effects of cannabinoids

In overarching trends, one pattern that is seen in the medical literature is a greater tendency for males to be more likely to develop drug abuse disorders than female counterparts, whilst females are more likely to develop anxiety disorders than male counterparts.

Of course, these trends are merely observational patterns in the current literature, which represents a biased perspective of biased subjects, and certainly not etched in stone. Further, many people do not conform to one pre-determined organization system as simple as gender to help educate whether they would be likely to develop drug dependence or anxiety, and even others don’t conform to a single gender. So, a sizeable grain of salt must be taken with what we understand from this literature.

That given, the relevant punch line here is what role might cannabis play in inducing or reducing anxiety across sexes, and how does cannabis might relate to addiction/dependence.

We are still at early stages of these important questions, but one recent study found, that female rats were significantly more likely than male rats to experience anxiety when given large doses of cannabis.

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Benjamin Caplan, MDSex differences in the anxiety effects of cannabinoids
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Cannabidiol Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease

Cannabidiol: a hope to treat non‑motor symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Patients

Cannabidiol (CBD) has recently been postulated as an ideal drug to address the treatment of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) due to its multifaceted mechanism of action. The plethora of effects of CBD includes anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic actions, which improve non-motor symptoms of PD and lift the quality of life for patients coping with the illness. Further research is recommended to garner support for FDA approval.

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This paper is also stored here:    http://bit.ly/2KXTb0Y     inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDCannabidiol Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease
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Development of Cannabis-Based Treatment for Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder and the endocannabinoid system

A recently published article serves as a call for research to be conducted to discover how cannabis could impact the management of bipolar disorder (BD). Presented in the article is a full review of the advantages and disadvantages of cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of BD and provides insight into possible mechanisms might affect the pathophysiology of the disorder. The insights listed within the article provide the rationale for examining the endocannabinoid system, specifically the cannabinoid receptor 2, with the hopes of finding therapeutic targets for mood control associated with BD.  

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Benjamin Caplan, MDDevelopment of Cannabis-Based Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
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The Cannabinoid System is a Promising Source of Targets for Treating Pain

A Budding Source of Targets for Treating Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain ECS

The cannabinoid system provides momentum to develop cannabinoid-based medications to treat inflammatory and neuropathic pain as researchers continue to find promising therapeutic targets. These new targets may lead to the formation of novel pain-relief medications that may serve well to alleviate pain for those suffering from cancer, multiple sclerosis, and fibromyalgia. Cannabis-based pain medicine is also being researched for opioid-sparing effects and effectiveness in reducing the necessary dose of opioids.

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This paper is also stored here:  http://bit.ly/2FfLorA        inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDThe Cannabinoid System is a Promising Source of Targets for Treating Pain
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Video: Cannabis and Multiple Sclerosis

A 2019 literature review summarizes the findings on cannabis use for patients with multiple sclerosis. Cannabis has been shown to aid a number of symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis, including chronic pain, spasticity, and problems with sleep. To learn more, check out our video adaptation below:

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This paper is also stored here:     http://bit.ly/2IJAqNz    inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDVideo: Cannabis and Multiple Sclerosis
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Cannabis constituent synergy in a mouse neuropathic pain model

In a mice-model study, researchers found that low dose THC:CBD might successfully treat neuropathic pain. 

Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system. Neuropathic pain may be associated with abnormal sensations or pain from normally non-painful stimuli, for example, Phantom Limb Syndrome.

View this review (yellow link) or download:

This paper is also stored here:   http://bit.ly/2Fk0yw7      inside the CED Foundation Archive

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Benjamin Caplan, MDCannabis constituent synergy in a mouse neuropathic pain model
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